Project Management-ORC

September 15, 2017 | Author: api-19731926 | Category: Project Management, Windows Vista, Project Manager, Product Development, Microsoft Windows
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Table of Contents Introduction


PART I: Project and Project Life Cycle


1. Introduction to Project Management


2. Project Management: A Case Study


3. Project Initiation: The Scope


4. The Work Breakdown Structure


5. The l'Iletwork


6. Project Execution, Monitoring, and Control


7. Closing and Contracts


PART II: Key Skills and Tools


8. Project Communications


9. Project Cost Estimation


10. Project Risk Management


11. Project Quality Management


12. Advanced Project Planning


13. The Professional Project Manager




Appendix A: Test Yourself Answers


Appendix B: Resources


Ind x .. ,.".,.,., M)out the Authors, . ,

, .. ,., , .. ,

283 ,






his book is intended as a comprehensive introduction for professionals who wish to learn project management at their own pace and on their own schedule. We introduce you to the world of project management and explain what you will need to know to complete a successful project. The content has been developed and polished in introductory and advanced project management courses that we have taught for many years, and our goal is to make the fundamental concepts clear and immediately useful. This is a great time to study project management, as the discipline of project management and the need for project managers is growing explosively. The Project Management Institute (PMI) has already awarded almost 500,000 Project Management Professional certifications, but the forecasted demand for professionally trained project managers over the next 20 years is over 15 million! PMI has codified the knowledge, skills, and techniques of project management into a professional discipline, which is documented in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), now a global standard. We closely follow the PMBOK in this book, so that the knowledge you acquire will serve you well for many years to come. Since we have taken a "fundamentals" approach, you will find the content relevant even if your interest is in other standards such as Prince 2, or if you use other company-owned proprietary processes. Projects are undertaken to provide a unique result or service, and have a distinct beginning and end. Projects are becoming more important to governments, non-profit institutions, as well as the business world, as more lind more organizations rely on the completion of projects to be successful. Projects today may involve just a single person or many thousands, and may last froln a few weeks to several years. 'I he hook is divided into two parts. In part 1, we explain the project 1rI111HIgcIJlcni lifl' cyek: IlJitillting. Planning. Monitoring and Controlling, I'Id Clo'lnS' 'lhroughout th . book, we unlllyz r II-world I' 'S, which



grounds the content in practical, useful methods. Part 2 covers the key skills and tools in the project manager's arsenal: managing communications, cost, risk, and quality, as well as detailed techniques for determining whether your project is under or over budget, and behind or on schedule. Each chapter has exercises for you to complete with answers provided in Appendix A. We recommend that you steadily work through each exercise. The questions are designed to help you understand the material and are variations on those we have successfully used in introductory project management courses. With the availability of modern project management software, the technical tools for managing projects have become much more accessible. Even small projects can now benefit from inexpensive, automated tools.

Introduction to Project Management INTRODUCTION


hat is a project? Whether you are cooking a unique meal, building

a boat, planning a 50th wedding anniversary for your parents, or

upgrading your operating system, you are engaged in a project. A historical review of Webster's dictionary for the word project reveals that this term has evolved from simply being defined as "an idea" in 1910 to a "planned undertaking"today.ln today's competitive business world, an idea must be studied and acted upon quickly. Largely due to the maturity of the project management discipline, today a project idea can be quickly planned, executed, and turned into successful results.

• Differentiating between project, operation, and program • Project management and project life cycle

• The role of project manager • The skills that a project manager must have • The role of a project management office




IN THE REAL WORLD Dunkin' Donuts recently completed a major project to introduce a "zero grams trans fat" menu nationwide. This was a secretive project that was conceived in 2003 and ended in 2007, and apparently only five people in the entire company knew about it. The project team was small and they worked at Dunkin' Donuts's research lab trying to create a recipe for a donut without trans fats that tasted just like those on which the chain had built its reputation over the last half century. This case is a real-world example of project management in action. A unique, well-defined deliverable of strategic importance to a company is produced within a finite amount of time.

KEY CONCEPTS Projects are typically associated with both large and small undertakings. Such initiatives are innovative and complex and require a structured methodology to deliver results. This is what project management is all about. A project produces one or more deliverables. A deliverable is the product or service requested by the authorizing party. For our purposes, we will define a project as an agreement to deliver specified goods or services within a fixed schedule and for a stipulated amount of money. Furthermore, the importance of clearly defining the scope of goods or services being delivered cannot be understated. Confusion surrounding the scope of the project is possibly the key reason why projects fail. Projects exist in every organization and vary in scope and magnitude. Some projects may involve one or two resources. Larger projects, such as the construction of a tunnel, involve several organizations all working toward a common goal.




Projects are temporary; they have a distinct bcgillllillK HIIlI ('lid. PWjC~ls .. I



arc llll--1 ~~ ) __



¢: ~ Conceive Product

Develop the Project ¢: ~

Design Product

Execute the Project ¢:: =:>


Finish the Project



~UtePYde : '

ptoje« life ~

Close Project

Conceive Project



¢= =:> Product Ready








the last three phases of the product life cycle don't necessarily map to the project life cycle. This is graphically illustrated in the figure above.

WHAT IS THE ROLE AND RESPONSIBILITY OF A PROJECT MANAGER? A project manager is assigned during the initiation phase of the project and is solely responsible for the success of the project. The project manager is anyone within the company who has the necessary knowledge and skills to perform the duties required by this role. Depending upon the scope of the project, the role can be either a full-time or a part-time responsibility. The project manager can be a senior manager or even a trained junior manager or employee. The project manager can be from systems analysis or from any business unit. The primary responsibility of the project manager is to ensure that the business objectives for the project are met. The major responsibilities of the project manager include the following: • Guide the project team to its goal to deliver a high quality project on time, within budget, and with no surprises

Project Status Satisfactory? II "Yo "move to next phase. II "No" Inv IIgoto or top projGCt.

Project Status Sotlflfn lory'! II "Yes" rnovo to no)(1 pl1 ,I , II "No" Invltlllg \ I nr1

• Mallnge the planning,, executing, controlling, and reporting t,

of th pro) -, ·t thruuSh III phos '8 to



ssfullmplcm 'ntalion




• Develop and coordinate resources


Project-Related Competencies

• Communicate across the organizational hierarchy and with stakeholders • Motivate and nurture team members by providing feedback, coaching, and rewards

• Effectively applies methodology and enforces project standards • Identifies resources needed and assigns individual responsibilities

Evaluate risks to senior management and manage those risks effectively

• Creates and executes project work plans

throughout the project life cycle

• Manages day-to-day operational aspects of a project and its scope

• Solve problems-projects rarely progress as planned A review of different job descriptions will reveal several unique competencies expected of a project manager. So even though it may appear that there is no standard job description for an expert project manager, on closer examination, a certain profile will emerge. We have summarized the

• Reviews deliverables prepared by team before passing to client • Prepares for engagement reviews and quality assurance procedures • Minimizes exposure and risk on project • Ensures project documents are complete, current, and stored appropriately • Tracks and reports team hours and expenses on a weekly basis

profile of a typical project manager in Figure 1.5.

Financial Management Figure 1.5 Project Manager Roles

• Understands basic revenue models, profit/loss statements, and cost-tocompletion projections, and makes decisions accordingly • Accurately forecasts revenue, profitability, margins, bill rates, and utilization • Assures legal documents are completed and signed • Manages budget and project accounting

Communication • Facilitates team and client meetings effectively • Holds regular status meetings with project team • Keeps project team well informed of changes within the organization and of general corporate news • I,:ncctively communicates relevant project information to superiors • I>cl ivcrs engaging, informative, well-organized presentations • Ihll)lvcs and/or evaluates issues in a timely fashion • I Jmil'l'slullt!s how 10 communicate difficult/sensitive information Some core competencies of a project manager are the following:





The project manager should also be good at understanding the project environment since most projects are planned and implemented in a social, economic, and environmental context. The project manager should consider the project in its cultural, international, political, and physical environmental contexts. While the focus of this book is not on general management or interpersonal skills, such skills are essential qualifications and a review of sample job descriptions suggests that most organizations require them. The project manager must have organizational and interpersonal skills such as: • Effective communication with stakeholders

• Leadership and motivation • Conflict management • Proactive risk management and problem solving

Does the Project Manager Need to Be Certified to Practice?


corporate goals, as well as giving guidance with respect to the availability of resources for projects. • Project Sponsor: This is typically the department head of the business area requesting the new project, or a senior executive. The project sponsor defines the project, makes sure it fits within departmental and corporate goals, provides resources, kicks off the project at the initial meeting, and receives regular status reports. The project sponsor maintains contact with the project until its completion by establishing an effective working relationship with the project manager and removes any major barriers that will prevent project success. • Functional Manager: The departmental managers or resource managers provide resources to the project manager. In a matrixed structure, the manager has full control over the resource but works closely With the project manager to make sure that the team member is meeting his or her project commitments. The functional manager is a stakeholder and plays a critical role on a project.

• Ability to influence and negotiate



A popular certification is Project Management Professional (PMP) offered by the Project Management Institute, which has established a baseline to ensure standards upon which industry can rely. But you don't need to become certified to engage in project management. More information on certification is provided in the last chapter of this book.

OTHER ROLES ON THE PROJECT TEAM Apart from the project manager, there are other key players on the project team. Let us briefly introduce some of them: • Executive Steering Committee: Many large organizations have an executive steering committee which is composed of the president and his senior executives. Their responsibilities include approvinl!, pro) "I's for ilnpl~lllCnl:alion) delining and ommunicating short ,11111 Ion ·term J

• Project Team Members: Team members are responsible for the Overall execution of the project. In a matrixed team structure, a team member will represent the project interests of his or her respective departmental area within the corporation. However, the management of the team is the responsibility of the project manager. • Business Architect or Analyst: The architect is charged with en suring that the right set of requirements is documented and underst d

00 .

A requirements document is typically a comprehensive description that focuses on the problems to be solved, not on the solution to those problems. • Quality Team: Typically, a quality management unit will oversee the achvities of the quality team. The team facilitates project develOPment, conducts technical reviews at review points where appropriate, provides Nuppor' and guidance to the development team throughout the . proJ('~:', and ensures projects conform to standards. The team also performs !,o/il-projec! reviews. , C\lSIOIlI~'r; 'I his is Ihc clld lIscr who benetits from the proJ'ect del'

\bl ,'J h~' . 1,~tCll!ln ~k'filws thl~ projl:d llnd k,~ts its results.







Knowledge Areas

Project management activities can be categorized into process groups that represent project activity phases. Many organizations today have adopted the official standard for project management processes illustrated in figure 1.6 below. This specifies all the project management processes or activities that are used or required by the project team to manage any project in any industry. The constituent project management processes are initiating, planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. We will cover each of these process groups in detail in the next chapter. But we will define the process groups briefly below:

In addition to the above five process groups, the Project Management Bod) of Knowledge introduces nine knowledge areas that interact with the project management process groups. The knowledge areas should be viewed a5 "knowledge requirements" for successful project management of each of thE process groups introduced in figure 1.6. Some of the knowledge areas are introduced formally in the second half of this book, while the others are covered as part of the five process groups. The nine knowledge areas are the following: 1.

Integration Management


Scope Management


Time Management


Cost Management


Quality Management


Human Resource Management


Communications Management


Risk Management


Procurement Management

• Initiating: Introduces the project and the project manager and defines the charter for the project. • Planning: Describes the project scope in more detail. Detailed project plans for schedule, cost, risk, quality, and communications amongst others are defined here. A realistic project baseline is committed to. • Executing: The project has begun and the project manager uses various tools and techniques to make sure that the project is progressing smoothly. • Monitoring and Controlling: The project manager monitors the project for deviations from cost, schedule, or quality and takes corrective action if needed.

Application Area Knowledge

• Closing: The focus of this process is on acceptance and approval of the project deliverables and documenting lessons learned.

Occasionally, we make reference to application areas. These areas are listed below with examples:

Figure 1.6 Project Management Process Groups

• Functional departments: Human resources, production, inventory, and marketing

Initiating Process Group

Planning Process Group


& Controlling Process Group

Closing Process Group

• Technical disciplines: Information technology, software development, construction engineering, manufacturing engineering, and research & development • Management specializations: new product development, supply chain management •

I ndustry groups: fabrication, chemical, automotive, farming

I\pplicalion arca.~ are unique because each has a set of accepted stanlinnls 1I1ld Jlrlldi(~·s. on~'1l (odifinl ill n:gulaliolls.lIlld each Illay use differt'm rn tho i nd Inol .




PORTFOLIO AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT This is an area of growing importance within the field of project management. A program is a group of related projects which are managed in a coordinated way so as to obtain benefits and control as well as gain efficiency on time, cost, and technology not available from managing them individually. Programs involve a series of related undertakings. The Olympics is a good example of a program. We could even consider the Winter Olympics and Summer Olympics as two program categories under the Olympic program. Each of these program categories has many projects, such as building a stadium or running an event like the Ice Hockey Tournament. The Olympics is a cyclical recurring event: Should we regard the Olympics as a program or a project? The question we must immediately clarify here is: are we talking about an individual event or the Olympics as a whole?


ROLE OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE A project management office (PMO) is an organizational unit used to centralize and coordinate the management of projects. A PMO oversees the management of projects, programs, or a combination of both. The projects supported or administered by the PMO need not be related other than that they are being managed together. A project manager is responsible for delivering specific project objectives within the constraints of the project, while a PMO is an organizational structure with specific mandates that can include an enterprise-wide perspective. The project manager manages the scope, schedule, cost, and quality of the products of the work packages, while the PMO manages overall risk, opportunity, and the interdependencies among projects. Projects have to be aligned with an organization's strategic plan. Projects are generally a means of organizing activities, which cannot be undertaken within an organization's normal operational schedule.

• If we are talking about the entire Olympics, this is a program. • If we are talking about an event, this is a project, as it is unique with a defined beginning and end. A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management to meet strategic business objectives. Figure 1.7 illustrates the relation between projects, programs, and the portfolio.

Figure 1.7 Portfolios, Programs, and Projects Portfolio





Important Questions In this final section, we discus two important questions: what are the benefits of project management, and when must we practice formal project management? Since formal project management might be time-consuming, when must one adopt formal project management practices? In our introduction we introduced various examples of a project, such as cooking a meal, planning a 50th wedding anniversary, or building a boat. Now that you have a foundation in project management, you might be wondering when you must adopt project management formally. Cooking a unique vegan meal might typically involve five activities, such as locating a good recipe, identifying the ingredients, following the I' 'dpe instructions, completing the meal, and preparing it for serving on Ilw dinner table. Even though this may be the first time you have ever ook 'd a vegan meal for a guest, you may not need to follow formal project mfllll\~cl\lclIl pradicc. So a key factor that will help you decide whether yOIl 111 list Cllllduci rormll( project management practice is to ask yourself



the following simple questions: Will this project require more than one person? Is the project likely to undergo significant changes? In either case, today's tools and automation make it feasible to use project management techniques on quite small projects. Further, formal project management techniques are invaluable when managing changes to a project. If it is an innovative or complex project, then you should probably adopt a formal project management methodology. With innovation comes complexity. This requires implementation of several more activities to minimize uncertainty. Your best bet is to adopt formal project management practice. What are the risks of not following project management formally? The risks could be many; for examples, you might experience project delay, project failure, going over the allocated budget, or unhappy customers.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN ACTION Kool Web Design is a Web design consulting company that was started by two classmates, Bob and Mary, upon graduation from an e-commerce program. When they first started, Bob focused on programming while Mary did Web design and training. They soon hired several part-time programmers to help them. Their business was successful and profitable in the first two years largely due to rewarding contracts from area businesses. But by the end of the third year of operation, Kool Web Design started experiencing critical problems. They were unable to: • Deliver websites to their customers on schedule • Provide quality Web applications-time and money were being spent on fixing defects • Meet the needs of their best clients • Control costs-business was not profitable in the third year They were seeing issues such as: • Communication problems



• A lot of "surprises" and issues that consumed their time • Poorly estimated projects Bob and Mary had both missed an opportunity to take a project management course at college. They recalled that their friend, Sam, who had taken a couple of project management elective courses while at college, was excited about the discipline of project management. Upon graduation he had intentionally selected a job with a consulting company that was strong on project management. So one fine day, Bob invited his friend, Sam, over to Kool Web Design for a lunch meeting to hear what he had to say about the problems he and Mary were facing. He described how his small business operated and implemented projects. He listed the problems they were facing and asked if it was simply growing pains or lack of expertise in project management that led to the crisis. Sam quickly noted that Kool Web Design, while being innovative, completed projects without a road map or a project plan and lacked a disciplined project management approach. They had no project management methodology, did not use any project software for scheduling and reporting, and had almost no tools to help them with project management. Finally, they had no project communication processes in place and were inexperienced in the areas of cost estimation and project risk management. Bob asked Sam if he would consider joining them as a partner to help them introduce project management processes and tide them over the current crisis. Sam was looking to enhance his career in project management, so he gladly offered to join them as a project manager. Sam had excellent communication skills, he was detail oriented, and hnd very good interpersonal skills. Within three months of joining, he introduced a formal project management framework. He trained Bob, Mary, R\ld the several contract employees on the basics of project management lind how to get the right work done well. He purchased several licenses for ill. oll"-the-shelf project management software tool and showed them how I() 1I,qC I ht~ software. He created several standard templates to help them



manage their projects. The templates sped up the production of documents such as project charters, scope and requirements document, activities, estimates, and the project plan. The following key activities and processes were introduced at the company: • Identifying the customer problem clearly and producing a scope statement that was signed off by stakeholders • Identifying business requirements early on and converting them into project specifications. A prototype was created where possible so that the specifications could be validated by the customers.



worked well. Formal reviews and quality control reduced the bugs in the websites. There was less rework and this single aspect helped the business tremendously. Projects were estimated much better and cost budgeting and control processes were working well. "Surprises" and issues were reduced drastically due to proactive risk analysis and risk response planning. Communication problems with stakeholders were dramatically reduced due to frequent exchange of documents, reviews, and meetings. There was substantial stakeholder satisfaction and, once again, opportunities for repeat business from their best customers.

• Estimating effort and costs using at least two techniques


• Identifying, quantifying, and mitigating risks and controlling them throughout the project at weekly meetings


Which of the following are projects?

• Creating a live project plan that acted as a road map for the entire project


Cooking a meal or running a restaurant?


Building a boat or operating a marina?

• Introducing project quality management processes


Upgrading your as or playing a video game?

• Facilitating communication and collaboration throughout the project

Answer for a) While cooking a unique vegan meal for the first time can

• Monitoring and controlling project cost and schedule for variances. Sam had introduced earned value which allowed them to track schedules and costs. 1\

• Keeping track of metrics and lessons learned and using them for project planning on their next Web project Within 12 months Sam had turned things around. The company was able to deliver professional websites and quality management processes

be a project, regularly cooking lunch or dinner in a restaurant might not be a project. 2.

On your own, list three examples of projects and three more examples that are not projects.


What are the benefits of using project management?


List five key skills that a project manager must have.



• Projects are temporary and have definite beginning and ending dates. Projects exist to bring about a unique product, service, or result. A project must achieve its goal within a specific time frame and budget and must meet the quality expectations of the funding entity.

Project Management: A Case Study

• Projects are considered complete only when the deliverables of the project meet the expectations of the stakeholders. • Projects may be organized into programs or portfolios and may be


managed centrally by a project management office.

that uses a set of tools and techniques to define, plan, organize,


and monitor the work of project activities. Project managers are re-

dation. It will help you get your first project under way easily using formal

sponsible for leading a team to carry out activities successfully.

project management processes.

• Project management is both an art and a science. It is a discipline

n this chapter, we expand the five project management process groups

introduced in the previous chapter using a complete case study as a foun-

• Difference between projects and operations: Projects produce unique products, services, or results, whereas operations are ongoing and use repetitive processes that mostly produce the same result.

• Project management:

• Skills every project manager should possess: Communication,

learning by example

budgeting, organizational, problem solving, negotiation and

• Project management

influencing, leading, and team building.

• Examples of: • Initation • Planning

process groups • Execution • Project management case study

• Monitoring and Control • Closing



IN THE REAL WORLD Projects are complex and they need to be managed in an integrative manner by the project manager. The Vista case study that follows integrates the five stages of project management and helps you understand the key project management processes that a project manager will use for a typical project. The project manager applies the five process groups-project initiating, project planning, project executing, project monitoring and controlling, and project closing to ensure project success.

Case Study Background Anita Rains works for Boston Universal Group (BUG) as a project manager. The company is a leader in Microsoft Office applications consulting. They are known nationally for providing consulting, training, and services involving Microsoft systems, especially in the Office suite. They have about 200 employees, 50 laptops, and 160 workstations at the work center. With the introduction of the Windows Vista operating system there is pressure from their customers to support the Vista platform. Boston Universal Group has subsequently decided to upgrade the operating system on their workstations from XP to Vista. Anita has been asked to champion this initiative. She has worked in the organization for over a decade and recalls the chaos during the upgrade to Windows XP from Windows 98. As a trained professional in project management, she decides to use the best practices as defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK).





Areas. There are five project process groups: initiating, planning, executing, controlling and monitoring, and closing. Project managers will use this framework only as a model. They will interpret the aforementioned guide in a variety of ways. Depending upon the nature and size of the project, not all processes might be used. This raises the issue of what is considered a small project, medium project, or large project. A project can be considered small if it has a total duration of less than 3 months, medium if it is between 3 and 12 months in duration, and large if it is more than a year in duration. Dollar amounts may also decide the size-if the amount is less than $100,000, then it is likely a small project. If the budget is between $100,000 and $1,000,000, it can be regarded as a medium project, and anything larger is a large project. Large projects require a lot of detail and generate a lot of documentation, both internal and external.

PROJECT INITIATIOI\I During the initiating process group, the start of a new project is authorized. Some organizations use a business case as a trigger for the project initiation phase. Also, a statement of work (SOW) can trigger the initiation phase. The main goal of this phase is to formally select and start off projects. This process group recognizes that the organization is committed to starting the project. Key outputs include the follOWing: • Assigning the project manager • Identifying key stakeholders • Establishing a project charter




• Establishing a preliminary project scope statement

The Project Management Institute (PMI) defines a framework for project management, which allows project managers to apply accepted practices and procedures to manage projects. The structure of the PMBOK guide includes Project Phases, Project Life Cycles, Process Groups, illld Knowledge

Getting the signatures on the charter from senior management and l.llukcholders will ensure a sound foundation for the project. This document 'til Ihe stage for the subsequent development work. See an example of the pro) ;"1 charIer, as created by management, in table 2.1.



Figure 2.1 Initiating the Project



Table 2.1 Project Charter Project Charter Project Title: Upgrade to Windows Vista Project Start Date: Feb 2009 Project Finish Date: May 2009 Budget Information: BUG has allocated a budget of $150,000 to upgrade the computers from XP to Vista Business Edition. The major costs will be labor and licenses for Vista Business Edition. Additional contingency costs for hardware will be set aside as well. This project is critical for the future competitiveness of the corporation. The project will be completed with the highest standards. The data integrity and privacy of all users will be protected during this migration.


Stakeholders: :> The organization as a whole (all desktop users)

Once the project has been initiated, the project manager plans the project. The planning process refines the project goals and documents the best way to achieve them. Here you would describe the project scope in more detail and come up with project plans for schedule, cost, risk, quality, and communications amongst others. A realistic project baseline is approved by all stakeholders and the project manager secures formal approval to proceed to the next phase. Planning is the most creative part of the project for the project manager. A variety of project plans are produced-the most common ones are project timeline, risk plan, cost and budget, quality plan, and communications plan. The Vista Project can be considered to be a medium project due to the allocated budget of $150,000 and therefore almost all the planning processes will be used by Anita Rains. Note that procurement processes pertain to timely purchase of Vista Business Edition licenses. Anita decides to focus on the following key documents for the planning phase of the project:



Management, IT operations dept, developers, quality team

Anita Rains is assigned as the project manager. As the project's stakeholders your signature below indicates that you support the initiative as well as the schedule and budget.

(Space for every key party to sign the charter to demonstrate their commitment to the project.) Print Name:




• Project work breakdown structure • Milestone Report • Project Closure Report Once Ihe project charter has been signed, the next thing to do is to


• Pro)

cl Ii

op statement

d'v lop th' pro) ls np stot ll1'I1t.lf th> prj> l Ii


slatCllwnt is wdl




written, it will minimize confusion about the project boundaries and will also communicate clearly to the stakeholders the work associated with the project. The scope document should have the following characteristics: a clear goal with information about the expected duration of the project, its justification, description of all objectives, project requirements-broken down into features where possible-known issues, risks and obstacles, and a description of deliverables with brief performance or completion criteria. In table 2.2 we have created a sample project scope statement for the Vista Project. A good scope statement typically describes the following aspects of a project: • Project description

Table 2.2 Project Scope Statement Project Title: Upgrade to Windows Vista Project Start Date: Feb 10, 2009 Project Finish Date: May 21, 2009 Project Goal: Upgrade 160 workstations running Windows XP to Windows Vista operating system (OS) within the time frame of four months. Description of All Objectives, Characteristics, or Requirements: • Determine software conflicts. • Steps for upgrading to Windows Vista:

• The justification: problem or opportunity

Step 1: Assess hardware requirements Step 2: Back up important data Step 3: Upgrade to Windows Vista

• Goals and objectives • Deliverables • Milestones • Assumptions • Limits and constraints

• • •

• The statement of work • The customer interface



Determine requirements for installing Windows Vista. Upgrade all pes with additional hardware and memory. Migrating to Windows Vista: migrate user settings; migrate the entire as. Investigate applications that do not migrate successfully and upgrade them.

Not all projects will require all sections, but the project manager should check to see that all sections have been thought through.

• •

Figure 2.2 describes the planning processes. It begins with planning and developing the project scope and continues with the project plan. The planning process group is the heart and soul of project management and has the largest number of processes, all of which contribute toward producing a useful and robust project plan. Several chapters in this book are dedicated to this topic. The project plan answers questions such as:

Project Justification: The business reasons (problem or opportunity); Boston Universal Group (BUG) focuses on Microsoft customers and most of their customer base has upgraded to the Vista operating system. Doing the same at BUG will give the consultants an additional level of comfort when dealing with the latest Office products and operating system. Also, recently BUG has received a major contract to create training content based on Vista.

Do complete quality test. Provide training to users for the new as.

• What work must be done? • What deliverable will this work produce? • Who will do the work?





Table 2.2 (continued)



Figure 2.2 Planning the Project

Known Issues, Risks, Obstacles: • Several applications are known to be incompatible with the new as. • We should inform the users of such incompatibility and resolve issues. • There are some reports of security issues with Vista. IT will patch the new as immediately upon installation. • Some laptops are out in the field with sales people. Assumptions: Funding is available for migration and IT resources are available as scheduled. Users will surrender their desktops and laptops as scheduled for migration. Summary of deliverables: • Successful migration to new Vista as • Successfully trained users on the new operating system Project Success Criteria: The goal is to complete the project within four months and within the allocated budget. The users will receive a survey six months after migration to determine if the new as is satisfactory and meets their business needs.

• When will it be done? • What criteria will be used to ensure quality? • What can go wrong? Upon completion of the project scope statement, the project team develops a work breakdown structure (WBS) for the project. This is a deliverable-oriented tool breaking the project scope into smaller packages. Table 2.3 shows a sample WBS for the Vista Project.

Typically. the above information is entered into a project management tool like Microsoft Project to generate a network and critical path for the project. The Gantt chart that is developed from this is used as a baseline for monitoring and controlling the project.

Risks With the help of the team, Anita developed a list of technical risks for the Vista Project and generated a risk response plan:


Hardware and hard disk space requirements may increase the cost • Risk response: Keep management informed




Table 2.3 Sample WBS for the Vista Project

Table 2.3 (continued)

Projec t Tasks


1. Initiation



Control and Monitoring a.

Keeping the project on schedule


Project kickoff


Keeping the cost on budget


Gain senior management approval


Monitoring the impact on users


Determine major stakeholders

d. Resolving issues/concerns 5.


Closing a.

Conduct project closure


Gather the upgrade details from Microsoft and other sources List applications running on a PC


Document lessons learned


Check H/W compatibility and space requirements


Archive the project documents to the company repository



d. Mock run on a test PC



Test Vista compatibility


Upgrade runnin g S/W, if required


Rollback plan for critical machines


• Risk response: Do rigorous testing on a prototype up front 3. Recovery plans • Risk response: Create a rollback plan for critical machines

Execution a.

Procure of OS license keys


Order the H/W upgrades


Gather of resources


Create Training/help desk


Steps for upgrading to Windows Vista i.

• Create a backup of all data Vista security concerns • Risk response: Perform adequate testing • Involve the development department

d. Install the H/W and the OS e.

Incompatible software may delay the upgrade

5. Impact on daily productivity of workforce • Risk response: Perform the upgrade only during the evenings

Assess hardware requirements

Anita was able to identify several nontechnical risks as well from her previous experience on a Windows 98 to XP migration project. The key risks are listed below:

ii. Back up important data iii. Upgrade to Windows Vista

iv. Migrate user settings

• (C:lwl;" /Jed)

Getting resources on schedule as promised Users In not turn in the desktop for migration as scheduled

,,, II




Users on vacation or on business travel are not able to turn in laptops

Communication risks: users misunderstand technical issues


Figure 2.3 Executing the Project





The project has begun and the project manager uses various processes and tools to make sure that the project is progressing smoothly. During this phase, the project manager obtains reports in a timely manner and ensures that the project's requirements and objectives, as specified in the scope statement, are being met. The project manager also motivates the project team so that its efforts are focused on the project deliverables. During this phase of the project, Anita works closely with the project team and coordinates other resources to carry out the project plan. She also organizes project team meetings to gather additional information. If any new risks come up, Anita mitigates them and also communicates them to the stakeholders. She reviews milestone reports and other variance reports generated by the project scheduling software. A typical milestone report is illustrated below.

Table 2.4 Milestone Report Milestone




Initiation phase Planning: Gathering the upgrade details

Feb 15



Feb 28



Planning: Applications running on a PC

Mar 2


In progress

Planning: Check H/W compatibility

Mar 15


Not started

The key processes associated with project execution are illustrated in figure 2.3. The goal of the project processes here is to create the deliverables or service that the customer wants. The planned resources are put into play, and the quality team ensures quality hy'x lIting the test system, Information distribution 1.0 stakchold 'rs is " k 'y" pOI1/iibillly

of the project manager. If the project involves outsourcing, requestIng seller responses and selecting sellers is coordinated by the ro'ect P J manager.

MONITORING AND CONTROL uring this phase of the project, the project manager monitors cost, qual-

lI.y. nnd schedule. The project performance I'S 't d b ' , ,_ . . mom ore y tracking the line schedule tor vanances from the proJ'e t 1 . "" ".' '. c management p an. We enIh,ltploJcctobJectlvesaremetbymon't' d . '" 1 onng an measunng progress n


1 ~l~l __



Significant scope changes can accumulate to the point where the original cost and schedule estimates are unachievable. On the other hand, given a well-defined, clear scope statement, the project team will immediately realize when extra work is being proposed. A clear scope statement is therefore essential in controlling scope creep. It is important to realize that changes are inevitable in all projects. When combating scope creep, the project manager must be aware of when scope changes are being proposed and carefully manage their consequences. Each proposed change should be recorded and analyzed to determine the impact on the project objectives. Only after the consequences (to scope, cost, and schedule) have been analyzed should the scope change be agreed to. The way to prevent scope creep from getting out of hand is to follow a scope management plan, which is a step-by-step process for managing changes to the project scope. This plan indicates how scope changes will be identified, how they will be integrated into the project, and what approval requirements are needed. Tracking changes in the scope management plans allows the project manager to communicate to the stakeholders how frequently and by how much the scope is changing. This is a key indicator in the stability of the project. In combating scope creep, a key question for the project manager to ask is, "Is this a refinement or an add-on?" Refinements are desirable and necessary. Add-ons result in cost overruns and schedule slippages. In well-run organizations, it is common to have a generic scope management plan in place so that a different plan does not have to be established for every new project. Scope management plans may contain basic or indepth information and can be formal or informal documents, depending on the size of the project.



Conduct a Product Analysis

Will the project meet the organization's business needs? Product analysis

Includes techniques such as systems engineering and analysis, and value lind function analysis. Value analysis techniques analyze performance and cnpabilities relative to cost. Net present value and return on investment ulculations identify the value a project will bring to the organization. A function analysis determines what functionality a product will add to the ompany by prioritizing objectives.

Conduct a Cost/Benefit Analysis A cost/benefit analysis helps to determine what to put into products to t out the greatest benefits. Project alternatives are assessed by estimating

I sible and intangible costs and benefits. Tangible costs are the costs of 1\ nking the product or the costs of completing a project. Intangible costs,

I 0 called opportunity costs, include opportunities missed by choosing I project over another. In other words, by doing Project A, what do we lilt B by not doing Project B? ompleting a cost/benefit analysis helps to determine whether the nefits of a project exceed the costs by a margin that is acceptable to the I r nization. During a cost/benefit analysis, companies typically look at I lh short-term and long-term benefits over the life of the project. l~or example, pharmaceutical companies plan for a ten-year develop-

t ycle. This lengthy development cycle may not yield many short-term

n fits,

but if the company is the first to market with a new drug, the

I' yolf Is significant.

k for Expert Recommendations SCOPE DEFINITION TOOLS Since preparation of the scope is so critical to a project's success, it needs to be thoroughly analyzed for completeness and precision. 1here are many tools to help the project manager with this task.

In Individual who has experience with similar projects to analyze the J • Outside experts have the advantage of being independent. While III


y not undcrst'and all of the intricacies of a company and its goals, '" . III 'y sllsceptible to company politics.



Identify Alternatives


Figure 3.2 Cost to Fix ReqUirements Errors

Identify different approaches for completing the project. Brainstorming or "lateral thinking" can generate different, more effective approaches. Alternative approaches will have different performance requirements, costs, and schedules. Even if the alternate approaches are not chosen, their analysis will highlight assumptions and clarify technical issues.

u: 100 t---=====~~...--:,~:...:..:.~~~;-~,......;....~

Conduct a Stakeholder Analysis

~ 50 -r---"--;......~~-:-~~-'--..:...o.~:.....-_ _....

Stakeholder analysis identifies the influence and interests of the various stakeholders by documenting their expectations. The analysis usually results in the prioritization, selection, and quantification of stakeholder needs. Unquantifiable expectations, such as customer satisfaction, may be documented to help prevent future conflict.










SCOPE ERRORS Academics and practitioners have been collecting data for decades on the impact of errors made in the scope definition (or requirements) stage of a project. It is depressing how little progress has been made. In 1981, in a book entitled Software Engineering Economics, Barry Boehm said: If a software requirement error is detected and corrected during the plans and requirements phase, its correction is a relatively simple If the same error is not corrected until the maintenance matter phase the error is typically 100 times more expensive to correct. Many studies have been conducted since then and all seem to reach the same conclusion. Suppose the scope document has an error in it, and assume that the average cost to fix that error during the requirements analysis phase is one person for one week (one man-week). An excellent estimate of what it will cost to fix that scope error in the succeeding phases of the project is shown in figure 3.2. Although this data refers to software projects, there is ample data from many other industries to suggest that this rule of thumb is universal.

An error made in the scope definition costs 1,000 times as much to fix if not discovered until the project is deployed. If errors in the scope occurred only rarely, then this would not be much of a problem. However, we now come to a less known, but equally interestIng idea:

Scope errors are the most common errors. In a u.s. Air Force study by F. T. Sheldon, errors were classified by ~Il·ce. It was found that requirements errors comprised 41 percent of It ~ errors discovered. while logic design errors made up only 28 pernl of the total error count. The combination of these two results is I v Sl'nting.

R yulrcments errors are very common and. if not discovered , Irrllicly ex pensive to Ii x.



What is the lesson for a project manager? Spend time on the scope. Don't rush to get the scope finished. Analyze it carefully and thoroughlyyour future career may depend on it.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT IN ACTION In December 2004, the University of Michigan and Google announced a project to digitize the university's library collection. While digitizing millions of books is a huge project, the project requirements (i.e., the scope) are quite simple-just a couple of pages. The essential features are the folloWing: • The collection will be searchable by Google. • The Michigan Library will receive and own a copy of all images. • There will be no charge for access to the library content. • It will be possible for a user to search the full text of all the volumes digitized and to view every page of an out-of-copyright book. There is design information included in the scope statement, e.g., what the users will see. A Google search returning results from a book in copyright will return: • Three "snippets" of text from throughout the volume, with a "snippet" consisting of apprOximately three lines of content • A count of the number of times the search term appears in the volume • The bibliographic data associated with the book • Information on where to buy the book or find it at a local library The scope document also includes technical requirements, such as: • The quality of the capture and digital files is such that the digital files are consistent with library preservation community standards for readability and best practices. • The processes Google uses to digitally capture the books and journals are nondestructive and do not disbind library matcrial~.



Finally, the scope includes legal issues, such as: • The library's use of these files will be within legal and mission-oriented parameters. • Google must work within the constraints of copyright laws.

TEST YOURSELF Construct a scope document for a friend's 50th wedding anniversary party. It is supposed to be a well-attended party for 100 guests with a budget of $5,000. Hint:The activities should include planning the party and the food, sending inVitations, and booking the site. Remember to include all items in the scope.



• No charter, no project. • The scope is the key document in the project-it must be complete and precise. • The triple constraint of scope, cost, and schedule emphasizes that

The Work Breakdown Structure

changing one affects the other two. • The scope elements: • Project description


• Justification or opportunity


• Goals and objectives (SMART)

e saw in the .previous chapter that

• Deliverables

th~ scope

provides the well-

defined, achievable goals of the project and a road map for

• Milestones

achieving them. It defines all ofthe products, services, and results to be provided.

• Assumptions • Limits and constraints

The next step of the project is to divide the scope into activities; that is,

• The statement of work

work components that can be planned, estimated, scheduled, and assigned

• Customer interface

to staff members. This is achieved through a process called decomposi-

The statement 0 f wor k (SOW) defines who is to perform what

tion-the subdivision of the scope into smaller, more manageable pieces.


However, this decomposition is not arbitrary. The activities are carefully

• Scope creep is uncontrolled growth of the project.

grouped into a hierarchical, deliverable-oriented decomposition called a work breakdown structure (WBS).

Scope errors are the most frequent type of project errors and the most expensive to fix.

The reason the WBS focuses on deliverables is that they provide a solid sis for cost estimation and scheduling. The scope of the project is first di-

vld d Into a few large-scale activities. Each of these is in turn decomposed

Into several smaller activities. Decomposition continues with the scope being divided into smallnd smaller entities until it reaches the smallest level, at which point


etlvltles are called work packages. Work packages may vary in size,


hCHJld be detailed enough so that the cost and schedule can be

, 11- Iy

tim t d.




The WBS both defines and organizes the total scope. The scope is divided up, and it is continually refined by increasing detail. The WBS becomes the foundation for project planning and is one of the most important project management tools.


The activities to be performed are described in a work breakdown structure (WBS) document. When I examine the WBS, I will see all of the proposed activities for the entire project. I will immediately be able to tell if I am getting a garage, a carport, or an underground parking spot.

DEFINING THE WBS • What is the work breakdown structure? (WBS)

• Why the WBS is a list of activities, not things

• How to construct a WBS

• Decomposition of the WBS into tangible items

• Why the WBS is important • How focusing on deliverables provides a solid basis for cost estimation and scheduling

• The lowest level consists of work packages • How big should work packages be?

IN THE REAL WORLD Suppose I decide to add a garage to my house in Boston with space for two cars. The scope of the project is pretty clear-space for two cars. However, there are several ways I can accomplish this: • A carport • A garage next to the house • A garage under the house

Creating the work breakdown structure is the process of subdividing the major deliverables and project work into smaller and more manageable components.

WBS Definition The WBS is a deliverable-oriented, hierarchical decomposition of the work to be performed by the project team.

You occasionally see a WBS divided into the objects in the project. For nmple, the WBS for a car may be decomposed into body, transmission, ngine, electrical system, etc. However, adding the proper verbs clarifies the WBS and turns the objects into activities. The WBS identifies all deliverables required for a project and is the I ndard way to organize the work to be performed. To complete a WBS efI t1vely, each deliverable is decomposed into manageable subdeliverables. I ing so helps to clarify and refine the total scope of the project.

It should be emphasized that the WBS focuses on deliverables. That

y. the completion of each activity is marked by the production of a speII ~nsily identified entity. Deliverables also prOvide a solid basis for cost I

These would all meet the basic requirement of space for two cars, and each has its advantages and disadvantages, as well as its own cost and schedule. As the customer, the choice between the implementations is mine. I reject the carport option (snow in Boston!) and the digging out a garage under the house option (cost and mess!). The next step of project management is to list the activities required to build the space for two cars. I selected an underground garage, then one or the first activiti s w uld be to dig l\ big hole.

I nJ tion and scheduling. The WBS is therefore a list of activities, not

thin .

A WBS can be set up in either graphical or outline format. Figure 4.1

II W WBS in graphical form, which gives a visual representation of the I I ahles in a treelike structure, with smaller deliverables branching out I'ht' 11Iql;cr dcliverablcs they support. This layout makes it easier to I nil of the purls of the projcel' and how they arc related, and it is I'h fo!'t\) UtlU Ily used in th .IrJy st {oJ 'of tJ1 pro) to






Figure 4.1 WBS in Graphical, Tree Structured Format

Figure 4.2 WBS in Outline Format


The structure of the WBS tends to grow large fairly quickly, so it is useful to divide it into self-contained subtrees and present these separately. Figure 4.2 shows the same WBS in outline form. The first level deliverable is listed at the left, and successive levels are appropriately indented. The outline form is a practical way to list a large number of activities and deliverables or to present a very complicated WBS. It is easy to see the drawbacks of the graphical form: it is hard to get it onto a single sheet and difficult to revise. However, it is an excellent way to communicate the higher levels to customers, management, and stakeholders. It is also an excellent tool for presenting status as the project progresses. The graphical and outline presentation forms can be combined, which makes for an effective communication tool. For example, the higher levels can be presented in graphical form. As the decomposition proceeds, it is more effective to present the lower levels in numbered outline format, which is more suitable for technical presentations. Sometimes the phases of a project are listed at the highest level. For example, in software development, the highest levels of the WBS are typically labeled requirements, analysis, design, code, testing, and integration. Thesl' activities reflect the phases (i.e., activities) of the software life cycle.


Build Home 1.1 Plan Approvals 1.2 Lay Out Garden 1.3 Construct House 1.3.1 Lay Foundation 1.3.2 Erect Frames 1.3.3 Install Roof 1.4 Fitting Out 1.4.1 Install Utilities Install Plumbing Install Electrics Install Furnace Install Heating Pipes 1.4.2 Decorate Paint Rooms Wallpaper Rooms Paint Trim 1.4.3 Buy Appliances 1.5 Build Garage 1.6 Project Management 1.6.1 Customer Reviews 1.6.2 Customer Approvals

The WBS both refines and organizes the total scope. The WBS decomition process refines the scope by dividing it into smaller pieces, thus ,I fining the project in increasing detail. The WBS also organizes the scope I y grouping the activities into manageable pieces. Creating the WBS is a I 't of the scope development process, and the completion of the scope is II ked by the completion of the WBS.

1 he key to understanding the WBS is the level of breakdown. First, the

W0 should only be decomposed until it makes sense. It is not necessary to


k down all activities to the same level. In figure 4.2, it was decided that lit "Plan Approvals" need not be divided further. Neither is it necessary

t aU layers at the same time. For example, in figure 4.2, the garage kdown has been left to a future date, when the details for the type of on be clarified. More detail is provided for the "Construct House" I I V I' Ible, because Ihat is where more effort is required to communicate II


USIOllll'r the exact details as envisioned at this point.



When constructing a WBS it is important to include all team members and to expect that it will take several iterations to come to an agreement. Including the team encourages everyone to think about all aspects of the project. One of the best ways to construct a WBS is to use small squares of sticky paper and just put them up on a blank wall. New WBS activities are easily created, and existing activities can be quickly moved around. Activities can be regrouped as needed and new structures can be proposed and evaluated. The WBS also reflects organizational and developmental decisions.





Since project management is an activity of the project, there should be a project management activity in the WBS. If there is a full-time, on-site project manager, with responsibility for quality control of the work and the materials, then there will be many project management activities in the WBS. One of the most important items to be included in the project management activity of the WBS is customer management, which includes creation of monthly reports, meetings, etc. Between the higher and lower layers of the WBS, there is an intermediate level called the control account. This is a collection of work packages that can be managed together by the organization. Control accounts are often assigned to functional departments. For example, in figure 4.2, the "Erect Frames" activity can be assigned to the carpentry department, and the "Lay Out Garden" to the landscaping department.

WBS ~ CONTROL ACCOUNT ~ WORK PACKAGES The control account supports several other bookkeeping functions: tracking of deliverables, cost estimation and planning, budgeting, accounting procedures, etc. An organization's financial reporting is typically per formed at the level of the control account. For example, it makes sense that the financial reporting for all of the landscape department's activilies Iw reported logel her.

CREATING A WBS The items in the boxes of the WBS are called activities. Activities should be defined with verbs. Compare the following:

Design Garden




- - - The first form includes a verb, which communicates valuable information. Adding the word design tells us that the garden is to be laid out. It also tells us that in this activity, the garden is not going to be dug or planted. If it wer~: the activity would have been described as "design, dig, and plant garden. We see that verbs are crucial in clearly and precisely communicating the activity to be completed. . Also, activities are deliverable-oriented, and we can imagine that the delIverable for the item on the left is the garden design document. We will know when the activity is completed because the design document will be delivered. The form on the right leaves it ambiguous as to what is to be accomplished (design? digging?). Also, there is no clear deliverable, so it will be Impossible to know when the activity is complete. As another example, consider the WBS for a project to add a garage. The WBS is a deliverable-oriented decomposition, and the deliverable is the garage. However, right at the start, we have options: build it ourselves r hire someone to build it. Verbs clarify this: Build Garage

It 1 now clear to everyone (Le., all stakeholders, including your spouse) II It you are going to build the garage! Ivlding the scope into smaller and smaller work elements, or act vltl"s, is a creative process; there is no automated way to accomplish the I Ikdown of Ihe scope into a WBS. It turns out that choosing good subt ITlN (I.t'., the decomposition process) is quite difficult, but it helps to I'/, Ihol hreaking Ihe scop:J-I C ('\







TEST YOURSELF Create a WBS for the 50th anniversary party using the scope document you created in chapter 3. Create a high-level WBS only for the entire party and a detailed breakdown for the party preplanning.

The Network

.. •

• The WBS is a deliverable-oriented decomposition of the scope. • The WBS should be clear and easy to understand. • WBS activities require verbs to clarify them. All activities listed in the WBS should produce a deliverable. • Deliverables listed in the WBS should be tangible, making it easy to recognize when they are complete. • The lowest levels of the WBS tree are the work packages, whose

INTRODUCTION n the previous chapter, we develo:ed the WBS, Wh~Ch is a list of activities.

rTo make a network, we add two Ideas: the order In which the activities must be performed and the length of time it will take to complete each activity. Adding these two simple concepts to the WBS will allow us to create a schedule for the entijre project.

size is one to two people for one to two weeks. • Work packages should be assignable to responsible individuals. • Each work package should be a direct subset of a summary deliverable, and each summary deliverable should be a direct subset of a high-level deliverable.

• What is a network diagram? • Why do I need a network diagram? • How do you construct a network diagram?

• What is the critical path? • Why is the critical path important?




critical path become the most important. Once we have the critical path (or paths, as there may be more than one), project management decisions

IN THE REAL WORLD You are having a small dinner party for friends. Before you start, you do a little planning and make a list of the activities to be completed:

get so much simpler. Remember, there is no concept of time in the WBS-it is just a list of activities. To construct a network, the first thing to be done is to take the list of

• Shop for ingredients

activities in the WBS and establish their dependencies: Which activities must

• Cook food

b.e completed before others can begin? For example, you have to finish buying nce before you can start cooking it. This is called activity sequencing. We also must determine how long each activity will take. Adding the length of time an activity will take to complete will allow us to create a

• Set the table • Eat




These activities cannot be completed in a random order. The shopping must be completed before the cooking can start. However, we can set the table while cooking the food. And of course, we can't start eating until the both the food is cooked and the table is set. We have established an order for the activities. More important, we have also specified their dependencies. For example, eating requires that both of the activities leading up to it must be completed. We have not just specified the order, but a more subtle relation about both of the activities that precede eating. If we add up the times for all of the activities, we will not get the time required for the entire project. This is because setting the table and cooking can be done in parallel. So how do we find out how long the project will take? Or put another way, when do we go shopping in order to finish eating

schedule for the entire project. We will assume for the purposes of this chapter that the time estimate for each activity is known. We will ignore for now the estimation process and just concentrate on the construction of the network.

COOKING DINNER Let's return to the simple example of having a small dinner party for friends. We made a list of the activities to be completed: i

Shop for ingredients

• Cook food • Set the table

in time to go to the movies at 7 P.M.?


KEY CONCEPTS We begin with this simple example, which contains everything you need 10 know about networks. Networks can get pretty complicated, but even Ihl' most sophisticated only contain the features in our simple example. Onc!' you have mastered this example, you can analyze any network! The result of developing the network is a schedule for the entire pro) ect. A few simple rules will allow us to determine how long the projecl will take, i.e., the schedule. However, even more important than the schedule is the critical path,



the nath

til t d t rmln"' th sell dul ,

,0 til' \

llvltl 'II

on lh

We need two things to turn this list of activities into a network: a sellu nee of activities (i.e., the order in which they must occur) and a time est I ~ote for each of the activities. The sequence is defined by determining the I decessors for each activity. To do that we construct the following table:

ble 5.1 Activity Sequences and Time Estimates






Sho) for ingredients



Cook food



Set th table







There are two arrows going into activity D. This means that eating

First the activities are identified by a letter. There are many ways to do

cannot start until both the cooking is finished and the table laying is fin-

this, and we have simply chosen to identify them as A, B, C, and D. One

ished. We emphasize the precise meaning of the arrows: the activity at the

can also number them according to the WBS hierarchy. Each activity also

head of the arrow cannot start until the activity at the tail has completely

has a duration, which tells us how long the activity will take to complete. In


the planning stage of the project, these are estimates. Later on, these may change to actual times as activities are completed. Shopping can be started at any time, so activity A has no predecessors. In


making the shopping list, we realize that we are out of napkins, so we,cannot start to lay the table until we have bought some more. Therefore, neither cooking (B) nor laying the table (C) can start until the shopping (A) is finished.

lfwe start the shopping at noon, when will we finish eating? This is an impor-

Also, we cannot begin to eat until the cooking is finished and the table is com-

l nt question-it asks "how long is our project?" To answer the question, we

pletely laid All of these relations are indicated in the table in the "predeces-

lise the following notation. Each activity is described by the following box:

sors" column. The last line of the table is read as follows: Activity D cannot begin until both activities B and C are finished, and activity D takes four hours.

'Ilble 5.2 Activity Parameters

Using the precedent relations, we can now construct the following




Figure 5.1 Network Diagram

Slack B Cook Food




Shop for Ingredients






Earliest Finish Slack Latest Finish

hopping (A) is the first activity. We can fill in the identity (A), the iptlon (shop for ingredients), and the duration (two hours). The earliest

C Set the Table


I'll first activity-the shopping-can start is at time zero. Therefore,

tllt zero in the top left-hand box for activity A. The first activity generThe arrows in figure 5.1 have a very specific meaning. The arrow frolll activity A to activity B means:


un earliest start at time = zero.

.3 Forward Pass Parameters for Activity A 0

Activity B cannot start until activity A is completely finished.

A Shop for

This is called a finish-to-start constraint. Earlier. w said that' we hud

of napkins, so th> table could not be laid untllth shoppit'M .






A ,_



WIl8 finl/lh A IJ,,1t I ( ' ( t I"

Ingr -dients







If the earliest start for the shopping (A) is at time zero, and its duration is two hours, then the earliest time that the shopping can be completed is at time 2. We therefore put 2 in the top right-hand box. Therefore, the earliest finish for activity A is 2. We now discuss activity B (cook food). In figure 5.1, there is an arrow from A to B, and the arrow means that activity B cannot start until activity A has been completed (cooking cannot start until shopping is complete). Since the earliest finish for A is 2, the earliest start for B is also 2. If the earliest start for the cooking (B) is at time 2, and its duration is

3 hours, then the earliest time that the cooking can be completed is at time 5. We therefore put 5 in the top right-hand box, denoting the fact that

The arrow from A to C means that activity C (set the table) can only begin once activity A (shopping) has been completed. Since the earliest finish for A is 2, the earliest start for C is 2. This is indicated in the top left box of activity C in figure 5.2. Since the earliest start for C is at time 2, and its duration is one hour, the earliest time that C can be completed is at time 3. We therefore put 3 in the top right-hand box, denoting the fact that the earliest finish for activity C is 3. There are two arrows going into activity D (eat). The arrow from B to D means that activity D cannot begin until B has finished. Similarly, the arrow from C to D means that activity D cannot begin until C has finished. Therefore, activity D cannot begin until both Band C have been completed.

the earliest finish for activity B is 5.

The meaning of the arrows allows us to compute the earliest start for activity D. Eating has to wait until both "cook food" and "set the table"

Table 5.4 Forward Pass Parameters for Activity B

have been completed. The earliest that eating can start, therefore, is after




whichever activity (B or C) is the last to finish. The earliest finish for B is 5, and for C is 3. Since the last to finish is B, the earliest start for D is

Shop for

at time 5.


When two arrows go into an activity, it is called a merge activity. The merge activity cannot start until both preceding activities are complete,


so the earliest start time of the merge activity is the latest of the preceding This shows the power of the definition of the "finish-to-start" arrows. It allows us to connect the activities. We can now complete the diagram for C and D:



the earliest start time for the next activity to start. Since B will take longer than C, there is some spare time between the finish of C and the 5





Inning of D.


Shop for Ingredients


2 2

C Set the Table



two arrows entered an activity, we took the latest of the earliest finish times

3 A

time 9. Since D is the final activity, we have arrived at the earliest finish for This completes the forward pass. The only complication was that when

Cook Food


The duration for D is 4, and so the earliest time that D can finish is at

the entire project: time 9.

Figure 5.2 Completed Forward Pass 2



'The power of the forward pass is now clear. The forward pass deter-


II In s the earliest finish for the entire project. If we start shopping at noon,


flrliest we can expect to finish eating is at 9






Figure 5.3 Completed Backward Pass


B Cook Food

We now ask the question, "What is the latest finish for the project?" The




answer typically depends on customer's wishes. If we wanted to go to a movie at 9 P.M., we might specify that we need to finish dinner by 8 P.M. In the above diagram, it is easy to see that we have a problem, because the



Shop for Ingredients



earliest finish is 9 P.M. When activity times are estimated, the effect of adding them together





in the network diagram is generally not known. For example, we estimated





Set the Table

that "cook food" would take three hours. We cannot change this; it is our




best estimate for the time to complete the activity. Therefore, it is not unusual for the earliest finish time for the entire project (calculated from the forward pass) to come out to be later than the desired finish time for the entire project. Let's impose the condition that the longest duration for the project is nine hours. This means that activity D (eating) has a latest finish of 9. What usually goes in the lower right box for the last activity (in this case, D) is

D can start as soon as both Band C have finished (this is the meaning

of the arrows from Band C to D). Therefore, since the latest start for D is , the latest finish for both B and C is also 5. For B, the duration is 3, and ince the latest finish is 5, the latest start is 2 (5 - 3 = 2). Similarly, the latest tart for C is 4 (5 - 1 = 4). The arrows from A to B and A to C mean that activities B and C can

the customer's desired ending time for the project. We put 9 in the bottom

cgin once A is completed. B has the earliest of the latest starts of B and

right-hand box for activity D.

. Therefore, since the latest start for B is 2, the latest finish for A must

11 Table 5.5 Backward Pass Parameters for Activity D

0 be 2. (If the latest start for C (4) were inserted for the latest finish for

A, then

this would violate the condition that B's latest start is 2. In that

the latest finish for A would be 4, and that is after the latest start for D

I, which is 2.) For A, the duration is 2, and since the latest finish is 2, the latest start is



l} 2 - 2 = 0). Since A is the first activity, we have arrived at the latest start



\' ~





CI the entire project: The latest start for the project is at time O. This com-


t s the backward pass.


,we took the earliest of the latest finish times as its latest start time.


The only complication was that when two arrows came out of an activ-



, I,


If the latest finish for the "eat" activity (D) is 9, and its duration is fOllr hours, then the latest start for eating is at time 5 (9 - 4 = 5). We thereforl' put 5 in the bottom left-hand box for activity D, its latest start. We can now complete the backward pass, which is shown in figure 5.3.

We could have insisted that because we want to go to the movies at M"

the latest finish for the project should be 8


In which case, we

wtluld put 8 for the latest finish for activity 0 (the lower right-hand box).



A -- -1 . This lead to the latest start clor act"ty IV1 The same process wo uld r simply means that to finish at 8 P.M., we need to start an hour ear ler.


Activity C does not lie on the critical path, so it can be delayed without affecting the project schedule. If setting the table begins as soon as the shopping is completed, even if it takes an extra hour, it will not delay the project. Activity C is said to have some slack. The slack for each task is calculated as follows:

t ne of the most important concepts in project manageWe now come 0 0 ath A B D is the longest path ment-the critical path. In figure 5.4, the p " h' t h the network and so represents the shortest time that t e proJec th roug th ., al th th A B D is called e cnbc pa . can b e compIet ed . The pa , ,

Figure 5.4 The Critical Path and Slack ....








Shop for Ingredients









Cook Food










Set the Table
















Latest Finish - Earliest Finish (LF - EF)



Latest Start - Earliest Start (LS - ES)


The easy way to remember the above formulas is indicated in figure 5.4 by the arrow to the right of the diagram: one subtracts the top number from the bottom number. The values for the slack are shown in figure 5.4. For example, for activity D, the latest finish, LF, is 9 and the earliest finish, EF. is 9, so the slack is LF - EF = 9 - 9 = O. Similarly, the latest start, LS, is 5 Rnd the earliest start, ES, is 5, so the slack is LS - ES = 5 - 5 = o. All of the activities on the critical path have the least slack in common. In figure 5.4, the least slack occurs for the path with zero slack. The rltical path does not always have zero slack. In the example where we wish to go to the movies at 8 P.M., the path with least slack will be the path with slack = -1. The critical path will still be A, B, D; the activities will just h ve slack = -1. The formal definition of the critical path is: 'The critical paths are the paths that have the least slack in common.

The critical path is the longest path through the network.

N t that there may be more than one critical path. If the duration

r.. The critical path is the shortest time in which the project can be completed.

.. , A Band D are critical because if anything dclflyll lilly The actlVltles , , . k I th entire project will be delayed. If the shoppll1g ta 'S ~ \I one 0 f t h em, e . will not hll\!th hours ruther thon the two \lOlIl:S ~h(:1 was phllHlI.~d,lhc cl\llIl~

tivity C were 3, then there would be two critical paths: A, B, D and

I,D. Activity C has a slack = 2, so the "set the table" activity can be startI U \'0 two hours later and still not delay the eating. Of course, if acIIvl y iii delayed by more than two hours, it will now be on the critical II . If we forgot the napkins on the shopping trip and only realized III - Illlll minule that we have to go back to the store, then activity C W II 'illi up Ollthl' critical path and mayhe even delay the meal and


,th pro)




. ~e critical path typically includes only a small fraction of the activitIes III a .pr~j.ect. This is useful, since it means the project manager can better prIorItIze management decisions to ensure the critical path is not adversely affected.

Warning: A task is the word that Microsoft Project uses for an activity-tasks are essentially equivalent to activities as we have defined them. The word task is not used in the PMBOK.

_ Finally, one can roll up the noncritical activities. That is a wh I " Ib ' 0 e non crltIca ranch of the network can be lumped together as a single entity for management purposes. Of course, if any of those noncritical activities are late, th~n. t~eir impact on the critical path must be carefully assessed. Many late actIVItIes on a noncritical path can quickly turn it into a critical path.




Milestones, or events, are markers on the project network diagrams that indicate important points in the project schedule. Milestones are important points in time, such as the completion of an activity and its deliverable (e.g., the completion of a document, the delivery of a subsystem, the completion of a quality review, etc.). Milestones can also denote important project management activities, such as customer meetings and management reviews.

Milestones have zero duration.


MORE ACTIVITY SEQUENCING RELATIONSHIPS There are different kinds of activity relationships: • Predecessor activities , Successor activities , Concurrent activities , Merge activities

Milestones can be indicated on the network diagram. Although milestones may appear along the critical path, they do not affect the flow of a project. The activity or work to complete a milestone, however, may be on the critical path. Presentations to customers and upper management are usually clearer when presented in terms of milestones. This is because milestones represent the completion of specific activities. Also, presenting network diagrams in terms of milestones makes them less cluttered and easier to understand.


i'II I

By far the most important feature of any network diagram is its eritkal path. It is not at all unusual for the critical path to change during a proj('(I, Activities may be completed sooner or later than originally planned. 1\ soon as any change occurs, the project manager should irnm 'dlal'c1y din k

the Imo t on the crltl 01 p_th.

Burst activities


Predecessor Activities I redecessor activities must finish before immediately following activities n begin. (A is the predecessor to B in figure 5.1.)

Uccessor Activities II

Ssor activities follow immediately after other activities. (B is the Ssor to A in figure 5.1.)

ncurrent Activities In lllTent, or parallel. activities can be worked on at the same time. This III -1 horlens (he duration of the pro)'eet ' In figllre 5• I , summarizes the key steps in schedule management.

Discretionary dependencies are preferred ways of doing the proj.ecl. They can change as priorities change, because there may be multlpk

'I\able 5.6 Steps in Schedule Management

ways to complete an activity. For example, the project ma~ager ,~1ay decide that the activity of setting the table may be accompl.lshed Jusl in time;' in which case the table is set just before eating begms. On I he other hand, the project manager may decide that the table should h·

tlvlty Definition

From the WBS, identify all of the activities required to produce all of the project's deliverables.

t1vlty Sequencing Identify the order of the activities and their de cndencies.



Estimate the type and quantity of resources need-

Activity Resource Estimating Activity Duration Estimating . Schedule Development

In a finish-to-start dependency, a lag is the time between the finish of a predecessor activity in a network diagram and the start of its successor activity.

ed to complete each activity. Estimate the time needed to complete each activity. Analyze the sequences, durations, resources, and

A lead says that an activity can begin early. (It can be thought of as a negative lag.) For example, in the preparation of a document, you might allow editors in the proofing department to start work a week early on a draft, before the document is formally completed (Le.) delivered). This is a risky action. The benefit of the schedule compression that might accrue must be balanced against the risk that the editors might have to re-edit some of the document. Leads and lags affect the timing of activities and so affect the critical path. In fact, they make the calculation of a critical path a bit tricky. While software packages can handle them correctly, the resulting critical path may not be easy to understand.

constraints to produce a schedule (the network diagram) Consider the factors that could alter the schedule (risks, resources contention, scope creep, etc.) and manage the changes to the project schedule.

Schedule Control

One of the best ways to manage the project schedule is to create a network diagram and enter it into project management software. ~ost modern software packages make it quite easy to create the network diagram, so there really is no excuse for not to using them.



·1 '



The classic situation where a lag is used is in purchasing an item. Suppost: you decide to buy a widget and the delivery time is two weeks. The time es timate for the "Buy Widget" activity might be four hours (the time it W~lI hI take to fill out the purchase request form, get signatures, etc.). There ort', the duration for the "Buy Widget" activity should be 4. However, the entin'

process takes two weeks, during which time no wo~k ~s being perform~~I. and you are simply waiting. To properly explain thiS III the network dill gram, you introduce a lag into the buying activity:

A document with several parts which requires multiple drafts may be conIde red as an example of a project that could use loops in the sequence of tivities. Suppose the first chapter is written and delivered-the activity I omplete (A). The next chapter is written and delivered (activity B). FiII Hy, the last chapter is written and delivered (activity C). See figure 5.6. The next activity is to review the first chapter and create a second draft. 'II might be considered as a loop in the network diagram. That is, activity AI being re-executed. Such loops are not allowed in network diagrams. 'II rrow from C to A in figure 5.6 is considered illegal: /\ much better way to describe the activities is the following:

Write chapter 1

Figure 5.5 A Lag Buy Lag: 2 wks


Test Widget

the "Buy WidlJct" activity is four hours, 'I hl' '''\' The time estimate 101 . . . " . ., , ..., . I 't'kl' II Widget" activity cannot starlunld "Iter thl.: \11l estobH h

th m'lhou


!llraJ Artery!'1 'unnel Project, replacing Boston's inner-city infrastruc-


wllh !lew wuds, bridgl~s, and tunnels, proved to he one of the largest, I I hi'll Illy dJtilcult md 'Jlvlr nn >ntally hall ngln~ infrastructu.. ~




"Big Dig:' the project spanned 7.8 miles of highway, about half in tunne~s. The larger of the two Charles River bridges, a ten-lane cable-stayed hybnd bridge, is the widest bridge ever built and the first to use an asymmetrical design. The Big Dig was a public work on a scale comparable to some of the great projects of the last century-the Panama Canal, the English Channel Tunnel (the "Chunnel"), and the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Every monitoring and control technique that could be conceived of was used and applied to the Big Dig, and the studies, their results, ang the data are all available to the public. There was no shortage of monitoring on the Big Dig. One might argue, however, that there was an acute shortage of control. When the Central Artery/Tunnel Project was first conceived in 1983 to alleviate traffic gridlock in Boston, the cost was estimated at $2.56 billion. Costs and schedules were updated annually, and the cost gradually increased to $7.74 billion in 1992, to $10.4 billion in 1994, and the most recent estimate of $14.79 billion in 2008. See figure 6.2. The Big Dig placed 3.8 million cubic yards of concrete-the equiva-


lent of 2,350 acres-one foot thick. The Big Dig also excavated more than 16 million cubic yards of soil. Monitoring of the progress, therefore, could always be measured in terms of the concrete poured and the soil excavated. In fact, the contractor, Bechtel/Parsons Brinckerhoff, claims that their estimate of $14 billion was reached as far back as 1992. Meanwhile. as late as 2000, public officials were still announcing "revised estimates" 01'


Cost control at the Big Dig relied on traditional project management methods: a work breakdown schedule with resources assigned. Each contract was divided into specific tasks with required resources and scheduled milestones. As contract modifications were proposed and implemented, additional activities were added to the schedule and the work breakdown structure. Schedule control was maintained by monitoring work in progress. Contractors developed detailed schedules for their own work that were aggregated into the overall project schedule. Scheduling was implemented using a commercial software package, PrimaveraTM, which was in widespread use in the construction industry. Senior project management reviewed significant scope changes as part of the contract modification process. Big Dig monthly reports included milestone dates and contingency dates, but they did not necessarily offer realistic completion dates, and this created problems with public credibility. In fact, the constant revisions of costs and schedules dramatically reduced the public's confidence in Big Dig management.


Profit Calculation Your project is planned to cost $100,000 and take 12 months to complete. The customer has agreed to a fee of $10,000. The customer would like you to finish the project early and so has proposed an early

$12.2 billion.

completion incentive fee. The reward for an early finish is $5,000 per

Figure 6.3 Cost Growth Categories on the "Big Dig:' ~

Inflation 55%


Environmental Mitigation 15%


Scope Growth and Traffic Maintenance 1:1%


Accounting Adjustments 7%


Schedule Maintenance 3%

~ Olher7%

month, and that is to be split 50/50 between you and the customer. If the project is late, there is a penalty clause, and you will pay $10,000 p r month. If the project finishes one month early, what is your fee percentage?

bJ, If the project finishes one month late, what is your fee percentage? rltl al Path Issue V UM I

"OlhOr" COl 9 ry Inotvdo lJlllorlll!J olto oon\lltiong, qllonlily vonollQllo, \lootl/II (!(lv.lopmenl, prIQ1nll varlAti nt, I onlOllll'fl 01 rOil, 9n() 01111118'1 y,

Ir nn Ivltl

taking your wife to Madrid for your anniversary. You have d th trip and part of the critical path consists of the following

: drive hom from work, p k, 10 d car with IU99 9 , and

!\ 116


drive to airport. Make a backup plan to allow for the fact that you may get held up at work. How does this affect the critical path? Tip: Give your answer in project management language.

Closing and Contracts • Managing stakeholder expectations reduces conflict over competing requirements and establishes unambiguous acceptance


criteria for project deliverables. • Projects in matrix organizations are complicated by negotiations between project and functional managers. • The project manager manages by focusing on three essential concepts: • The critical path • Integrated change control • Accurately measuring the progress of deliverables • When any changes are proposed, first examine the impact on the critical path.


~e focu~ of this activity is on formal acceptance and approval of the pro-

I ject dehverables by the sponsors and documenting lessons learned. Closing a project involves formally terminating all activities associated with a project. If the project has been successfully completed, then this Involves verifying that all contractual obligations have been satisfied. Even If the project was cancelled before completion, many of the same activities must be completed. Lessons learned for unsuccessful projects may be even more valuable.

• Always follow the integrated change control process so that stakeholders understand the impact of changes and only approved changes are implemented. 'I.

Project status can only be accurately measured in terms of com-

• The details of closing a project

• Contract changes • Risks associated with

pleted deliverables. • Anyone change to performance, cost, or schedule will affect the entire performance, cost, and schedule. • Crashing compresses the schedule, but increases the cost. Fast tracking compresses the schedule, but increases the risks.

• Contract types

fixed price, cost plus,

• Fixed price contracts

and time and material contracts

• Cost plus contracts • Time and material contracts



... - - - --- . -----.~




IN THE REAL WORLD The salespeople were promised an upgrade for their laptops to the new Vista operating system. Many of them were on sales calls and traveling on extended trips. The technical people were waiting to upgrade the software according to the project plan. The salespeople showed up after their trips, expecting to get the upgrade.The technical people said, "You're too late! We have started an~ther



projeet:' The project manager had to use all her negotiation skills to induce the salespeople and the technical people to agree to a new schedule for the upgrades. The project cannot be closed out until everyone is satisfied, which in this case involves chasing down all of the salespeople and finding a time when the technical people can upgrade their laptops. Only when all of the units are converted will the project be complete. Payment will only occur





when all these details are finally completed and documented.


KEY CONCEPTS CONTRACT CLOSEOUT Closing is a real challenge and takes a long time. There are a myriad 01 complicated details, both technical and financial, that must be taken carl' of. Failure to correctly deal with any of the details will hold up contracl closure. Contract closure is the one of the processes in the closing process groll \I, Closure involves ensuring that all contract work has been completed alHI accepted, performing an audit to ensure that all deliverables are of accepl able quality (Le., they meet their specified requirements), and creating !III

Contract closure can even result from a default of one 0 f th e parties. . In . eIther case, the termination clause in the contract will determine the rights and responsibilities of each party. Contract closeout usually includes the following: • Stakeholder debriefings • Documentation of contract closure • Procurement audits • Handing off of deliverables • Final acceptance and payment · An important part of contract closure that is gaining more importance 1S .the completion of lessons learned. The lessons, both good and bad, along Wl~ process improvements and recommendations, are archived. Future project managers may search and examine the database both as a learnin tool and for ideas and approaches. g Such .information will come in handy should the organization become Involved m. ano~her project similar in nature. You then have a sample of the WBS and .nsks 10 the project plan. The project manager also uses this as an opportunIty to.provide feedback on staff performance on the project. A final project report is also created and published. The content of h . . d' suc report IS 10 lCated in table 7.1. Projects may also terminate for reasons besides completion of the deIIverables. For example: • A merger between companies may require consolidation of projects. • cine product may become technically obsolete before the project is omplete.

• 'me business case for the project may become obsolete before the project

archive for the contract documentation. If the project has been determined to be unsuccessful and is prCllll\

J complete.

turely terminated, then contract closure might be a mutual agrccllH'll1 between the customer and the project team to terminate the pro)!" \.

11I1:cncss and cost overruns, or poor product quality.

Poor performance may result in cancellation of the project, either due to





Table 7.2 Lessons learned from Vista Project Table 7.1 Project Closure Report Client Name Project Background and Description

I "

What did not work?

Lessons for next Project

Team building: Identified a good mix of team members

Not enough effort in defining the scope.

Spend more time identifying the scope: which users are local, which are remote


Clear WBS identified activities and this resulted in a good network diagram.

Team members struggled to identify a good communications strategy

Use a single repository for all information.


The schedule and activity assignments were clearly communicated to everyone.

Users were not releasing the computers on time for upgrades.

Distribute information to remote users earlier and more closely monitor their travel schedule.

Earned value analysis was not done and activity costs and schedules were uncertain.

Invest in earned value training and tools.

The remote user's laptops were upgraded late and contractors were not paid on time.

Coordinate with controller's of-


What Worked?


Summary of Project Results Reason for Closing the Project Deliverables Evaluation Project Schedule: Original and Actual Start and End Dates Project Team Outstanding Risks Budget and Financial Information: Original and Actual Action Plan Ongoing Support Next Steps or Transition Plan Project Closure Approval Appendix A Project Management-Related Documentation Appendix B Product-Related Documentation Lack of proper closure can result in frustration. The project manager should acknowledge the contributions of the team and stakeholders, preferably in a tangible manner. Just as the charter kicks off the project with enthusiasm' closing a project should be a cause for celebration. This should be seen as an opportunity to market the project's accomplishments and successes.

Lessons Learned History might repeat itself unless your learn from your mistakes. At the end of the project, the team should complete a table such as the one thaI follows and file it in the company archives. Before the start of a similar proj' t, any or 11 such I ss ns should b> review d.

Monitoring Having visible and milestones and Controlling prioritizing completion of critical path items. Closing Survey of users Phase was conductedand yielded valuable insight.

fice for partial payment based on percent work completed.


Table 7.3 Procurement Management • Plan purchases and acquisitions-determining what to purchase, the means, and when

• Request seller responsesreviewing offers and negotiat-

• Plan contractingdocumenting products and services and identifying poten-

• Contract administrationmanaging the contract with the customer and any sellers

tial sellers





ing contracts

• Contract closure-completing and settling each contract


regulations, government standards, health regulations, local and state ordinances, etc.

TYPES OF CONTRACTS Contracts fall into the following general categories: • Fixed price • Cost plus • Time and material There is considerable variation within each category, but the key difference between the contract types is the assumption of risk. Who assumes the risk for each type of contract and what are the implications?


Fixed Price (FP) Contracts

Procurement management includes the acquistion process for any products or services needed for the project from outside the company. Procure-

This type of contract involves the delivery of a well-defined product for a fixed price. A fixed price contract may include incentives for meeting or exceeding specified objectives, including cost and schedule targets. A very simple form of fixed price contract is a purchase order for an item to be delivered on a specified date for a specified price. This demonstrates the attractive simplicity of fixed price contracts. When there is a well-defined product, it can be acquired with a fixed price contract. For most projects, however, constant change is a fact of life, and it is difficult to precisely define the end product. This puts a huge burden on the preparer of the contract because it is difficult and costly to develop a complete specification. But for fixed price contracts, development of the specification is critical. In fixed price contracts, negotiations about adjustments and changes on be contentious. The contractor is in a good position if changes are rel.)lJired, because it is unlikely that another company can do the job. To combnt this, a fixed price contract may include incentives for the contractor hI complete the job earlier and for less cost. This helps to mitigate the risk of the contractor asking for more money. since the additional funds may Ollie al the expense of the incentives. 'I he following lHille t'xplnills I he risks fill' n fixed price conI rae\.

ment management consists of the processes shown in table 7.3. A contract is a legal document between a buyer and seller. It is a mutually binding agreement that obligates the seller to provide specified products and services, and it also obligates the buyer to provide monetary or other valuable consideration. For a project, the contract will typically contain the scope document, which then becomes the definition of what the project must do. Most organizations have very detailed policies and procedures that specify precisely who can sign a contract and make legally binding commitments. The project manager helps to define the contract to reflect the specific needs of the project. One of the most important features of a contract is the process by which changes to it are accomplished. The legally binding nature of a contract means that the change and approval processes are reviewed thoroughly by company management. A contract typically contains a "Terms and Conditions" clause, whith may specify major deliverables, key milestones, and costs. This clause nwy also require customer approval of major staffing roles. 'The contract may also include references to "Technical Rcquiremcnls:' su t oslo

r nts ,


dev 'lupm 'Ill l



or incxp 'ricn 'd resources) that




Figure 10.2 Risk Management Plan

Figure 10.1 Risk Management Processes /:


Enviroomental Factors! Orgamzanonal Process Assets


- Risk Management Planning








1 Plennlng Meetings and Analysis


Project Management Plan

Risk Register and Risk Management p(an






( RIIk -

Risk Management Plan



,- ,


.Risk Ident"lcatlon



, { 1 St",tegy lor Both Threets and Opportunnlas 2 Contingent Response Strategy



1 Documentation Reviews 2 Inlormallan Gathenng Techmques

Project Management Plan


3 Checklist Analysis

4 Assumptions Analysis 5 Diagramming Techniques


Risk Register (Updates)



Project Managemant Plen (Updates) Rlsk·Related Contractual Agreements



RI8k Monitoring and ,Control


t Risk Audits 2 Variance and Trend Analysis 3 Stetus Meenngs

Qualitative Risk Analysis


1 Risk Probability and Impact Assessment 2 Probability and Impact Matrix 3 Risk Categorization 4 Risk Urgency Assessments

Risk Management




I Risk Register (Updates)





Risk Register



1 Data Gathering and Representation Techniques





Risk Management Plan Project Management Plan



Perlonnance Reports




Recomme_d CorrectIve Acttons Recommended Preventive ActIons

Risk Management Plan




~ Project Management Plan (Updates) Risk Register (Updatas)


(simulation), and related techniques and models, we quantify the identified risks. Risk quantification can be broken down into qualitative risks and quantitative risks. Figure 10.2 describes the remaining processes.


Quantitative Risk Analysis



2 Ouantltative Risk Analysis and

Modeling Techniques



Risk Register Updates

Risk Response Planning 'The key risks are mitigated using techniques such as avoidance, information buying, risk transfer, and risk sharing. Risk reduction is achieved by reducing either the probability or the risk impact (amount at stake) or both.


might have a significant impact on the project. These items or events might be identified through risk identification checklists, through reporting by project participants, through comparison with historical data, and through use of computer software.

Project Risk Quantification (Qualitative and Quantitative) Using lools and lcchniqu s SUdl us th Ri-sk'llillour Tcmpl~\t~sl



__ .1. .. I .

Risk Control Risk control involves activities such as risk management planning, risk solution, and risk monitoring. Milk Monitoring rovidcs timely risk vllllbillty mel r solution. It: incorporates techniques such 1_

"AlItA_a ..... AIIL

......... t.



•• Cl

.",....1 .. A"..J -=~~ •• IA~ .... L .. b

..:0 . . . . . . . _ " " ....... "



During this phase, the risk management plan is continuously updated as new risks are identified and addressed. Next we will review some of the key processes in more detail.



I ,I



RISK IDENTIFICATION As risks change over time and new risks arise, this process of risk id~n­ tification is repeated several times through the project's life cycle. RIsk identification can be facilitated with the help of a checklist of common risk areas for your projects. Historic records of previous projects and expertise of the project managers or other experts playa key role in risk identification. The risk management plan, which is a key input to the risk identification process, can now be updated with identified risks. .' Example: If you were organizing the Olympics, you might have Identi-

Qualitative Risk Analysis Qualitative risk analysis is done to prioritize the identified risks for further action. This analysis determines the priority of identified risks by calculating their occurrence probability and the corresponding impact on project objectives, as well as other factors such as cost, schedule, scope, and quality.

Quantitative Risk Analysis Quantitative risk analysis is performed to assign a quantitative value for risks that have been ranked by the qualitative risk analysis process as potentially affecting the project's competing demands. This process analyzes the effect of those risk events and assigns a numerical rating to those risks, and it presents a quantitative approach to making decisions in uncertain situations. The purpose of this activity is to:

fied the following broad categories of risks:

• Quantify the possible impacts on the project and their probabilities of occurrence

• Safety: Athlete safety; VIP security

• Assess the probability of completing the specific project objectives

• Technology/IT: Publicity and prep communication failures

• Identify important risks by quantifying their effects to the project

• Logistics: Delivery failures of critical items • Ticketing: Counterfeit tickets and scalpers

• Identify realistic and achievable cost, schedule, or scope targets in the presence of risks

• Transportation: Traffic tie-ups

• Determine the best project management decision in uncertain conditions

• Accommodation and tourism: Standard visitors; lost passports • Communication: Athletes and tourists speaking hundreds of language,

RISK QUANTIFICATION The goal of risk quantification is to assess the impacts of the key risks. ( >11 a large project, you may discover several hundred risks. H~wever. nol ,III . k scan b e ml't'19at ed . So the next step is to quantify the nsks so lhll\ w ns can t h en ml't'19a te them . The guide to the PMBOK splits this process hllll two processes, quantitative and qualitative. We present both the anlll)' • as follows.

Even though quantitative risk analysis generally follows the qualitative risk analysis process, experienced risk managers sometimes perform it dir ctly after risk identification. Risks can be analyzed in two dimensions: probability (P) and amount t stake, which is a measure of the risk consequences (C). In figure 10.3, we illustrate the four quadrants to which risks can be assigned. During th qualitative analysis, we focus on the quadrant having risks with high ll'ohability and high consequence, which is the upper right-hand quadrant u figu re 10.3. The project manager must focus on the upper right-hand U H.lranl. 'lhe risks in the other quadrants must be monitored, but the I oJ '(\ manager nccd nol necessarily create risk plans for them.



maker. It illustrates the various options schematically with probabilities. The branches of the tree represent either decisions (shown as boxes) or chance events (shown as circles).

Figure 10.3 Risk Quantification 100%

§i [email protected]



~ 1l




Low C

Figure 10.4 Expected Monetary Value (EMV) Decision Tree EMV Decision



Amount at Stake (C)

Decision Node

Chance Node


P: How likely is the event to occur? C: How severe is the consequence of this risk?

Subcontract Prototype


Expected Monetary Value Let us review two sample risk quantification tools. Expected monetary value (EMV) calculates the average outcome when the future includes sce-

Subcontract ($10,000) Prototype or Build In-house "

Path Value

= 0.3 '$100,000 = $30,000 EMV (SUbcontract)

= $30.000 + $10,000 = $40,000

Build In-house


narios that mayor may not happen. For each outcome, EMV multiplies: Path Value


Risk event probability (P): An estimate of the probability that a given

risk event will occur. 2. Risk event value, or amount at stake (A): An estimate of the gain or loss that will be incurred if the risk event does occur. The risk event value must reflect both tangibles and intangibles. EMV (Expected Monetary Value) = Impact x Probability Consider the toss of a coin. Heads you will win $100, tails you will lose $90. We can use expected monetary value to determine if this bet is profitable for us or not. Expected Value (win) = 0.50 x $100 = $50 Expected Value (lose) = 0.50 x $90 = $45 Since the expected value (the total, $50 - $45 = $5) is positive $5, this prol ect is profitable! Decision Tree A decision tree is a diagram thai depicls key inlcradiolls all\(111~ dn I

Ilion!! 1lI'ld. MilO lut d ch 11

v nts, OS th 'Y 0.1'

1I nd "r 'loud

by th . J .•\


= 0.1 '$100,000 = $10,000 r=--:----:"...--' EMV (In·house)

= $10,000 + $20,000 = $30,000

Example 2 A project manager is contemplating whether to build a prototype in house or to sub-contract it to an outside vendor. The Expected Monetary Value decision is explained in figure 10.4. The cost to build the prototype in house In $20,000, but it can be subcontracted for $10,000. There are assumed to be two outcomes as a result of the prototype effort: success and failure. e.g., the required technology is shown not to be reliable. If the prototype is subcontracted, the project manager estimates the hance for success is 70%. If the prototype is developed in house, the projt manager estimates the chance for success is 90%. In both cases, the t hnology failure will result in excess costs of $100,000. This might be business opportunity loss, schedule slippage, or cost overruns. 1he decision tree is read as follows. The failure path value for the subontroct option is: .P til V lu .0 X $100,000. $30,000




The EMV includes the cost of the subcontracted prototype, $10,000, so EMV (Subcontract)

= $10,000 + $30,000 = $40,000


Example: For the Olympic case study, we have quantified the risks and put them into the following contours: • High Risk: IT, ticketing, security • Medium Risk: Transportation, accommodation

The failure path value for the build in house option is:

• Low Risk: Tourism

Path Value = 0.1 x $100,000 = $10,000 The EMV includes the cost of building the prototype in house, $10,000, so EMV (Build in house)


= $20,000 + $10,000 = $30,000

The build in house option has the lower EMV for the failure case, and so it is the preferred option. Even though building the prototype in house is more expensive, the costs associated with the risk of failure are much lower and make it the best option. Most project managers will not need complex risk quantification tools and techniques. Using simple risk contours will achieve the purpose of quantifying the risks so that the project manager can move on to risk re-

Risk response planning is defined as developing procedures and techniques to enhance opportunities and reduce threats to the project's objective; the risk response plan is updated whenever a risk occurs. Strategies such as avoidance, transferance, mitigation, acceptance, and sharing are used by the project manager to mitigate the risks. A typical risk response planning document will include all the identified risks, a description of the risks, how they'll impact the project objectives, and the strategy to prevent or mitigate the risks.

sponse planning.

Common Techniques with Examples Figure 10.5 Risk Quantification Countours • Avoidance: Change the scope of the project.


r------------r--;===:;;;;;;:7=:=::;;j-~1 -(Unacceptable) IT High Risk

. Security



Mitigation: Containment-send the resource for training. • Acceptance: Assign a contingency budget to mitigate the risk. • Sharing: Create an equal partnership in the business.

Accommodation Medium Risk

) table 10.1 for more risk response techniques.

......, l - •• _


• Transference: Purchase insurance.

xample Tourism



1\ sllnple template for responding to risks, shown in table 10.2, should be

(Acceptable) 0%

Units o( relative loss


Id nfh:r we have quantified the key risks. For the Olympics example, we I IV 'ompl'\ done t'X;\1l1l 1il' lIsing this template.




Table 10.1 Risk Response Techniques


Personnel shortfalls

Use top talent, team building, training, preschedule staff

members and to update the risk management plan is a good strategy. The discussion pertaining to project risk analysis should involve the following topics:

Scope not clear

Prototype application

• Risk area and description

Outsourcing risks

Check references, pre-award audits, award-fee contracts, site visits, colocation of team

Unrealistic schedule

Incremental development

• Rationale behind the risk • Management action required • Management plan to remove risk • How long this item has been a risk • Risk tracking plan

Table 10.2 Risk Mitigation Template Risk Event

Impact of Risk

Prevention/Containment/Mitigation Strategy


Customers and revenues

We should test the IT system to make sure that tick~ting works. For customers who don't have access to a computer, a toll-free number will be provided.

The template shown in figure 10.6 can be useful for tracking and controlling individual risk events. Figure 10.6 Risk Item Tracking Form Risk Item Tracking Form Risk Identifier: _A-tOe Status: _Open_ Date: 2/1/09_ Severity:

we reco mmemi th e 10 C II owmg ' .

I prooch.1'lrst, to b ell lbl l


th PMI', you must hav the following:

244 1.




Either an associate's degree and five years of project management experience (during which, 7,500 hours were spent leading and directing project tasks) or a bachelor's degree and three years of project management experience (during which 4,500 hours were spent leading and directing project tasks).


Studying for the PMP Exam Questions on the test break down into three categories: definitional, computational, and tricky. We have found that for our students (and ourselves!) the best approach is the following:

Thirty-five contact hours of instruction in project management. 1.

Once you have completed the forms to prove you have the required experience, you can apply to take the PMP exam, which consists of 200 multiple-choice questions to be answered in four hours. Of these, 25 are test questions used to evaluate future questions and are not counted in your score. There is a IS-minute tutorial before the test, which explains how everything works. PMI administers the test through computer-based testing (CBT). CBT centers are available in locations throughout the world. The entire process of application, payment, and scheduling of the test is easily accomplished online through the PMI website.

The Examination The examination is comprised of 200 multiple-choice questions, and the allotted time to complete the examination is about four hours.

Master the material in the PMBOK. This looks easier than it actually is. The PMBOK is relatively easy to read and understand. However, it takes a while to understand that each and every paragraph can be the subject for a question. Consider the following paragraph taken directly from the PMBOK introduction:

High quality projects deliver the required product, service, or result within scope, on time, and within budget. The relationship among these factors is such that if anyone of these three factors changes, at least one other factor is likely to be affected. Project managers also manage projects in response to uncertainty. Project risk is an uncertain event or condition that, if it occurs, has a positive or negative effect on at least one project objective.

Test Breakdown by Areas Domains

% of Items/Domain

I. Initiating the Project


II. Planning the Project


III. Executing the Project


IV. Monitoring and Controlling the Project


V. Closing the Project


VI. Professional Responsibility


There are two definitions in the above paragraph: the one about the three factors, and the definition of risk. In between those definitions is a simple, easy-to-overlook sentence: "Project managers also manage projects in response to uncertainty:' So while you are carefully concentrating on Ple two definitions, which are indeed important, the following question will·catch you out: Project managers manage projects in response to: a. cost

Twenty-five questions inside the exam are not considered in the final score, as they are test questions only. You will not know which they arc. They are randomly hidden in the test bank. For more information, go to Here you will find further information concerning the project management professional cerliliull ion

(PMP) and c'rtified asso lllt in proJC t ITHIIUl

J11 'nl (


b. schedule c. performance

d. uncertainty AIl.~wel':

d. un' '/'tllinly




While the first three answers are actually correct, PMI insists that they are asking for the best answer. Appealing to the legal definition in the PMBOK, answer d is correct. In order to answer these types of questions correctly, we recommend the books in step 3 below. 2. Take a course with a qualified institute.

A two-day course will be sufficient to cover all of the material in th,e test. This will provide you with the background to answer the defimtional and computational types of questions, It will also prepare you to answer the tricky questions,


Who can benefit from being a PMP? Virtually everyone involved in the project and program management field: project managers and other project team members, managers of project man~gers, customers and other project stakeholders, functional managers, educators teaching project management and related subjects, consultants and other specialists in project management and related fields, and program managers. Today program managers have their own credential from PMI if they wish to pursue it, called PgMP. Organizations like AT&T send their senior level employees to take the exam. They have several vice presidents who are PMPs.

3. Study the following resources.

The PMP exam contains many questions that are tricky unless you understand where they come from and what they are designed to achieve. To pass the exam, you need to be able to deal with these tricky questions. We recommend the following books, which you can study after completing your two-day course: a. PMp® Exam Practice Questions and Solutions, by Aileen Ellis, PMP. © AME Group, 2005. This book contains a series of questions that are well organized into sections corresponding to the PMBOK processes. This book will ensure that you clearly understand the basics.When you can answer these questions, you are ready to deal with the tricky ones. b. PMp® Exam Prep, by Rita Mulcahy, PMP. © RMC Publications, Inc.. 2005. Rita's book takes a lot of time to master. Her approach is based on memorizing a large process chart, which allows you to figure oul the inputs and outputs to the 44 processes. It's easier to memorizl' the chart than the names of the hundreds of documents that go in I ()

EXPERIENCE VERIFICATION To document your qualifications, you will be asked to complete an experience verification form as part of your PMI application. For the training component, you will document your skills by providing the institution name, the name of the course attended, the dates of attendance, and the contact hours earned. Any accredited university course in project management meets the experience criteria.

DOMAIN TOPICS IN THE EXAM This section describes the domains that you will be tested on in the examination. They are in the specification documentation for the exam. The following are the domains that you will have to master:

and out of the 44 processes. • Initiating the Project

WHY BECOME CERTIFIED? The common responses we hear from various project managers

• Planning the Project 10


question are recognition, challenge, requirement, and financia,l reward (~W:ll e b . PMP) ' Interviews with certifIed proJecl Illil II ill\l' I :. b onus lor ecoffilOg a also reveal that it has helped 'hem lllas\cr a UJllIlllOII prOle 'I IlWlla~~l'IIl('111 vo


• Executing the Project • Monitoring and Controlling the Project • Closing tl1l' Projecl • Prof, 'lJiOJlnl nl! '0 I I R pOI lbillty





Executing the Project

Initiating the Project

The core concepts that you must master under project execution are the following:

The key topics dealing with project initiation that you are responsible for in the exam include the following:

• Execute the tasks as defined in the project plan, in order to achieve the project goals.

• Conduct project selection methods (e.g., cost benefit analysis, selection criteria) through meetings with the customer and experts, in order to evaluate the feasibility of new products or services.

• Ensure a common understanding by setting expectations in accordance with the project plan, in order to align the stakeholders and team members.

• Define the scope of the project based on the business need, in order to meet the customer's project expectations. • Document high-level risks, assumptions, and constraints using historical data and expert judgment, in order to understand project limitations.

• Implement the procurement of project resources in accordance with the procurement plan.

• Perform key stakeholder analysis using brainstorming, organizational charts, interviewing techniques, and any available information, in order

• Manage resource allocation proactively by ensuring that appropriate resources and tools are assigned to the tasks according to the project plan, in order to execute the planned tasks successfully.

to gain buy-in and requirements for the success of the project. • Develop the project charter through review with key stakeholders, in order to confirm project scope, risks, issues, assumptions, and constraints.

• Implement the quality management plan to ensure that work is being performed according to required quality standards. • Implement approved changes according to the change management plan, in order to ensure the successful completion and integration of all

Planning the Project For the planning domain you are responsible for mastering the following

tasks. • Implement the approved actions and work-arounds required to mitigate project risk events, in order to minimize the impact of the risks on the

key concepts: • Record detailed customer requirements, constraints, and assumptions with stakeholders, in order to establish the project deliverables usinK requirement-gathering techniques (e.g., planning sessions, brainstorm ing, focus groups) and the project charter.

project. • Improve team performance by building team cohesiveness, leading, mentoring, training, and motivating, in order to facilitate cooperation, ensure project efficiency, and boost morale.

• Create the work breakdown structure with the team using approprinh' tools and techniques, in order to develop the cost, schedule, resollf '(',

Monitoring and Controlling the Project

quality, and procurement plans. • Develop the change management plan by defining how changes williII' handled, in order to manage risk.

'!he core concepts that you must master for monitoring and controlling projects are the following:

• Obtain project plan approval from the customer, in order to fornlllll'll' • Measure project performance using appropriate tools and techniques, in

the project management approach. Conduct a kickoff meeting with all key stakeholders. In onk..


til st:urt of th proj t, nd r vi w th ov raj!

oJ' t Vi

\0 III



order to rnonlllll' 111l' progress of the project, identify and quantify any

vorlonc '11, p 'rfurm ny r- Ilr'd orr tive actions, and communicate 10



• Ensure that project deliverables conform to quality standards established in the project quality plan using appropriate tools and techniques (e.g., testing, inspection, control charts), in order to adhere to customer requirements. • Monitor the status of all identified risks by identifying any new risks, taking corrective actions, and updating the risk response plan, in order to minimize the impact of the risks on the project.

Closing the Project



learned, and project deliverables, and to provide the final project status to all stakeholders. • Archive project records, historical information, and documents (e.g., project schedule, project plan, lessons learned, surveys, risk and issues logs, etc.), in order to retain organizational knowledge, comply with statutory requirements, and ensure availability of data for potential use in future projects and internal/external audits. • Measure customer satisfaction at the end of the project by capturing customer feedback using appropriate interview techniques and surveys, in order to gain, maintain, and improve customer long-term relationships.

The key closing concepts that you must master are the following: • Formalize final acceptance for the project from the sponsor/customer by ensuring that the delivered product(s) and services comply with the agreed deliverables list, agreed scope, and any organizational procedures, in order to close contractual obligations and document the project's success. Obtain financial, legal, and administrative closure (e.g., final payments, warranties, contract sign-off) for internal and external vendors and customers using generally accepted accounting practices and SOX compliance, in order to ensure no further expenditure and to communicate formal project closure. • Release all project resources using appropriate organizational policies and procedures (e.g., financial and human resources) and provide performance feedback, in order to make them available for other future project assignments. • Communicate lessons learned by means of "post mortem" team discussions, 360-degree surveys, supplier performance evaluations, and workshops, in order to create and/or maintain knowledge and experiencc that could be used in future projects to improve overall project managc ment processes, methodology, and decision-making, and to capitali'l.(· on best practices. • Distribute the final project report using all projCl:t c!osun.:-rclalcd info!' mali(lll, in order 10 highlilJ,hl projcd vari,ln . ·S. any opell issues, Icssowl

Professional and Social Responsibility The professional and social responsibility domain was introduced starting in 2000. The previous exams did not have questions on this domain. The key concepts you must master here are the following: • Ensure personal integrity and professionalism by adhering to legal requirements, ethical standards, and social norms, in order to protect the community and all stakeholders and to create a healthy working environment. • Enhance personal professional competence by increasing and applying knowledge, in order to improve project management services. • Promote interaction among team members and other stakeholders in a professional and cooperative manner by respecting personal and cultural differences, in order to ensure a collaborative project management environment.

OTHER GLOBAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATIONS In our "In the Real World" section of this chapter, we discussed IBM's approach to slandnrcls lind ccrlitications. Here we briefly introduce other organi'l.ali()I)s'"IHIHllIl'ds

,nd ,.. llIi




International Project Management Association (IPMA) IPMA is an international federated body, predominantly based in Europe. It has several member organizations in Europe. Due to the diversity of business laws and regulations, each member is responsible for establishing its own national standards in the context of the baseline standards defined by the IPMA (the IPMA Competency Baseline, or ICB), as well as its own certification program, which is verified by the IPMA. The national societies serve the specific project management development needs of each country in its national language, while IPMA represents them as an umbrella organization at the international level for administrative purposes. Let us review this for the United Kingdom's approach to certification and standards. The Association for Project Management (APM) is aligned with the International Project Management Association (IPMA) four-level certification program. The following qualifications, apart from the certificated project manager qualification, are delivered through APM-accredited training providers: • Introductory certificate: For anyone looking to understand the principIes of project management • APMP (IPMA Level D): For people with up to two years of project management experience • Practitioner qualification (IPMA Level C): For anyone with more than three years of project management experience • Certificated project manager (IPMA Level B): For project managers with extensive experience in managing complex, multidisciplinary projects • APM project risk management certificates: APM offers level-one and level-two certificates for project and program managers involved III project risk assessment in any way



Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM) The AIPM is the national project management organization within Australia. They have adopted the PMBOK as the basis of their certification program. They have multiple levels of certification that are tied directly to the Australian government's Australian Qualifications Framework, a national program of qualification. AIPM offers the follOWing certifications: • Project team member/project specialist • Project manager • Project director/program manager

Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) AACE was founded in 1956 in the United States and awards the CCE credential. It enables individuals to acquire professional capabilities within cost engineering. CCE is currently awarded only to those who hold a fouryear degree from an accredited engineering program. The levels are: • CCE: At least eight full years in the profession, of which up to four years may be substituted by an engineering degree or a PE license • CCC: At least eight years of referral experience in the profession, of which up to four years may be substituted by a four-year degree in a related discipline • ICC: At least four full years ofexperience in a cost /schedule-related field, of which up to four years may be substituted by appropriate college-level -' academic training

PRINCE2 PRlNCE2 ™ is the United Kingdom de facto standard for project management,

Similarly, there are IPMA-accredited organizations in China and' II dia. In some cases they have their own names. For example. in lnoia. Prol ect Management Associates is the registered prof
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